Article 8 of the Israel U.S. Tax Treaty - Business Profits

1. Industrial or commercial profits of a resident of one of the Contracting States shall he exempt from tax by the other Contracting State unless the resident has a permanent establishment in that other Contracting State. If the resident has a permanent establishment in that other Contracting State, tax may be imposed by that other Contracting State on the industrial or commercial profits of the resident but only on so much of them as are attributable to the permanent establishment.

2. Where a resident of one of the Contracting States has a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to the permanent establishment the industrial or commercial profits which would reasonably be expected to have been derived by it if it were an independent entity engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the resident of which it is a permanent establishment.

3. In the determination of the industrial or commercial profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are reasonably connected with such profits, including executive and general administrative expenses, whether incurred in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.

4. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment of a resident of one of the Contracting States in the other Contracting State merely by reason of the purchase of goods or merchandise by that permanent establishment, or by the resident of which it is a permanent establishment, for the account of that resident.

5. For purposes of this Convention, the term "industrial or commercial profits" includes but is not limited to, income derived from manufacturing, mercantile, banking, insurance, agricultural, fishing or mining activities, the operation of ships or aircraft, the furnishing of services, the rental of tangible personal (movable) property, but not the rental or licensing of motion picture films or films or tapes used for radio or television broadcasting. Such term does not include the performance of personal services by an individual either as an employee or in an independent capacity.

6. For purposes of paragraph (1), industrial or commercial profits which are attributable to a permanent establishment include income from dividends, interest, royalties described in paragraph (2) of Article 14 (Royalties), and capital gains and income derived from property and natural resources, but

only if such income is effectively connected with the permanent establishment. To determine whether income is effectively connected with a permanent establishment, the factors taken into account shall include whether the rights or property giving rise to such income are used in or held for use in carrying on an activity giving rise to industrial or commercial profits through such permanent establishment and whether the activities carried on through such permanent establishment were a material factor in the realization of such income. For this purpose, due regard shall be given to whether or not such property or rights or such income were accounted for through such permanent establishment.

7. Where industrial or commercial profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other articles of this Convention, the provisions of those articles shall, except as otherwise provided therein, supersede the provisions of this Article.

Commentary to Article 8 of the Israel - U.S. Tax Treaty

Paragraph (1) sets forth the general rule that industrial or commercial profits of a resident of one Contracting State are exempt from tax by the other Contracting State unless the resident has a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State. Where there is a permanent establishment, only the industrial or commercial profits attributable to the permanent establishment can be taxed by that other Contracting State, unless the resident is a citizen of that other Contracting State. (See the saving clause in paragraph (3) of Article 6 (General Rules of Taxation).)

Under paragraph (8) of Article 4 the Israel - U.S. Tax Treaty (Source of Income), industrial or commercial profits, whether otherwise treated as from sources within or without a Contracting State, which are attributable to a permanent establishment which a resident of one Contracting State has in the other Contracting State will be considered to be from sources within that other Contracting State.

Thus, items of income described in section 864(c)(4)(B) of the Code attributable to a permanent establishment situated in the United States will be subject to tax by the United States. The limited “force of attraction” rule under Code section 864(c)(3) does not apply for U.S. tax purposes under the Convention.

In determining the proper attribution of industrial or commercial profits under the Convention, paragraph (2) provides that both Contracting states will attribute to the permanent establishment such profits as it would reasonably be expected to derive if it were an independent entity engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the resident of which it is a permanent establishment.

Under paragraph (3), expenses, wherever incurred, which are reasonably connected with profits attributable to the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses, will be allowed as deductions in determining the industrial or commercial profits of the permanent establishment. However, in determining the amount of the deduction under

paragraph (3) for expenses incurred by the head office, the deductions may be limited to the expense incurred without including a profit element for the head office.

Paragraph (4) provides that no profits shall be attributed to & permanent establishment merely because of the purchase of goods or merchandise by that permanent establishment, or by the resident of which it is a permanent establishment, for the account of such resident. Paragraph (2) of the Article does not override paragraph (4). Thus, where a permanent establishment

purchases goods for its head office, the industrial and commercial profits attributed under paragraph (2) to the permanent establishment with respect to its other activities will not be increased by adding a notional figure for profits from purchasing.

Under paragraph (5), the term “industrial or commercial profits” includes income derived from manufacturing, mercantile, banking, insurance, agricultural, fishing or mining activities, the operation of ships or aircraft, the furnishing of services, and the rental of tangible personal (movable) property. The term does not include income from the rental or licensing of motion

picture films or films or tapes used for radio or television broadcasting, or income from the performance of personal services derived by an individual either as an employee or in an independent capacity.

Under paragraph (6), the term “industrial and commercial profits” also includes income from dividends, interest, royalties described in paragraph (2) of Article 14 of the Israel - U.S. Tax Treaty  (Royalties), and capital gains and income derived from property and natural resources, but only if the income is effectively connected with a permanent establishment. See paragraph (4) of Article 12 (Dividends), paragraph (5) of Article 13 (Interest), paragraph (3) of Article 14 (Royalties) and paragraph (l)(c) of Article 15 (Capital Gains).

Paragraph (6) also contains criteria for determining whether income is effectively connected with a permanent establishment. Factors to be taken into account include whether the rights or property giving rise to such income are used in, or held for use in, carrying on an activity giving rise to industrial or commercial profits through a permanent establishment and whether the activities carried on through such permanent establishment were a material factor in the realization of the income. For this purpose, due regard will be given to whether or not such property or rights or such income were accounted for through such permanent establishment. The rules of this paragraph are similar to those found in section 864 of the Code.

Under paragraph (7), where industrial or commercial profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other articles of the Convention, the provisions of those articles will, except as otherwise provided therein, supersede the provisions of this Article. Thus, for example, taxation of interest income will be controlled by Article 13 (Interest) and not by this Article unless the interest is attributable to a permanent establishment.

Paragraph (8) provides that the United States excise tax on insurance premiums paid to foreign insurers, imposed by section 4371 of the Internal Revenue Code, which is a covered tax under paragraph (l)(a) of Article 1 (Taxes Covered), will not apply to insurance or reinsurance premiums received by a business of insurance conducted by a resident of Israel regardless of whether that business is carried on through a permanent establishment in the United States. This provision applies only to the extent that the relevant risk ii not reinsured, directly or indirectly, with a person not entitled to relief from such tax.

Under paragraph (1) of Article 8 (Business Profits) and subparagraph (1)(a) of Article 1 of the Israel - U.S. Tax Treaty (Taxes Covered) of the Convention, no insurance excise tax (or income tax) is payable with respect to premiums paid to a resident of Israel if the resident does not have a permanent establishment in the United States. In the case of an resident of Israel with a permanent establishment in the United States, the United States will not impose the insurance excise tax.


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*This article is intended for informative purposes only and is in no way to be construed as tax advice or a legal opinion

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